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Wetenschappelijke informatie elektrogevoeligheid
- 12 december 2015
Hieronder vindt u een overzicht van wetenschappelijke studies en artikels over elektrogevoeligheid. Voor de meest recente studies en artikels, zie onze nieuwslijn elektrogevoeligheid en onze facebook-pagina.
- Een onderzoeksgroep rond de Franse kankerspecialist Prof. Dr Dominique Belpomme verrichtte belangrijk onderzoek naar elektrogevoeligheid (EG). Ze ontwikkelde onder andere diagnostische criteria en 'biomarkers' voor deze aandoening en ook wierp ze een licht op de mogelijke oorzaken. Eén van de verklaringen voor het feit dat sommige mensen gevoeliger zijn voor EM straling dan anderen, zou te maken hebben met het aantal 'magnetosomen' dat iemand heeft, een soort mini-kristallen die zich in de hersenen en op andere plaatsen in het menselijk lichaam bevinden (meer uitleg op Wikipedia en zie 'magnetosensorisch vermogen bij de mens'). Ook bij sommige diersoorten zijn magnetosomen terug te vinden. Het zijn receptoren voor het magnetische veld van de aarde en stellen dieren/mensen in staat zich te oriënteren.Sommige mensen zouden meer van deze magnetosomen hebben dan anderen, wat hen gevoeliger maakt voor EM straling. Ook het centrale zenuwstelsel speelt volgens Belpomme een centrale rol bij elektrogevoeligheid. Als de blootstelling van de elektrogevoelige aan EM straling niet aangepakt en verminderd wordt, zou de aandoening volgens Belpomme op termijn kunnen leiden tot neurologische aandoeningen zoals (vroegtijdige) dementie en multiple sclerose (MS). Op basis van zijn onderzoek legt Belpomme ook een verband met kanker.
- Artikel Le syndrome d’intolérance aux champs électromagnétiques (2010)
- Studie van Belpomme et al. gepubliceerd in Reviews on Environmental Health: 'Reliable disease biomarkers characterizing and identifying electrohypersensitivity and multiple chemical sensitivity as two etiopathogenic aspects of a unique pathological disorder' (december 2015).
- Meer info op de website van l'Association pour la Recherche Thérapeutique Anti-Cancéreuse (ARTAC), opgericht door Prof. Belpomme en www.ehs-mcs.org.
- Artikel Le syndrome d’intolérance aux champs électromagnétiques (2010)
- De magnetosoom-hypothese wordt ook ondersteund door een studie gepubliceerd in NatureMicrowavenews.com – 19/10/2011:
Cornell biologists may have made a breakthrough in understanding why some people are electrosensitive. They report in Nature Communications that humans as well as many other species descended from a type of fish that lived some 500 million years ago which had a "well developed electroreceptive system." A possible implication is that some of us, like sharks and rays, may be able to detect very weak electric fields and perhaps a subset has an electroreceptive system that has gone awry. We concede that this is speculation on our part; for a more direct interpretation of the new paper, read the Cornell University press release.
Meer informatie over deze studie vindt u in volgende pdf.
"Most vertebrates — including humans — descended from ancestor with 'sixth sense'""People experience the world through five senses but sharks, paddlefishes and certain other aquatic vertebrates have a sixth sense: They can detect weak electrical fields in the water and use this information to detect prey, communicate and orient themselves""some 30,000 species of land animals (including humans) and a roughly equal number of ray-finned fishes – descended from a common ancestor that had a welldeveloped electroreceptive system"
Meer artikels: Magnetosensorisch vermogen bij de mens
- Overzichtsartikel 'Elektromagnetische velden en elektrohypersensitiviteit'Verschenen in NVS Nieuws, het blad van de Nederlandse Vereniging voor Stralingshygiene, 2006 (3), 27-31
- Electromagnetic hypersensitivity: Fact or fiction?
Sci Total Environ. 2012 Jan 1;414:103-12. Epub 2011 Dec 5.Genuis SJ, Lipp CT, University of Alberta, Canada.
Abstract - As the prevalence of wireless telecommunication escalates throughout the world, health professionals are faced with the challenge of patients who report symptoms they claim are connected with exposure to some frequencies of electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some scientists and clinicians acknowledge the phenomenon of hypersensitivity to EMR resulting from common exposures such as wireless systems and electrical devices in the home or workplace; others suggest that electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is psychosomatic or fictitious. Various organizations including the World Health Organization as well as some nation states are carefully exploring this clinical phenomenon in order to better explain the rising prevalence of non-specific, multi-system, often debilitating symptoms associated with non-ionizing EMR exposure. As well as an assortment of physiological complaints, patients diagnosed with EHS also report profound social and personal challenges, impairing their ability to function normally in society. This paper offers a review of the sparse literature on this perplexing condition and a discussion of the controversy surrounding the legitimacy of the EHS diagnosis. Recommendations are provided to assist health professionals in caring for individuals complaining of EHS.
U vindt de volledige studie terug hier.
- Ginson P.R. (2009), Chemical and electromagnetic exposures as disability barriers: environmental sensitivity, Disability & Society, Volume 24, Issue 2 March 2009, pages 187 - 199
This paper proposes that chemical and electromagnetic exposures pose technology-related disability barriers for people who have acquired sensitivities to them and that these barriers should be integrated into our understanding of disability. I discuss pervasive chemical and electrical exposures as products of industrialism that first engender impairments and then act as disability barriers to those who develop intolerance to them. I also remark on unique aspects of environmental sensitivities in the context of the social model.Volledige studie
- Johansson O. (2006), 'Electrohypersensitivity: State-of-the-Art of a Functional Impairment', Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 25: 245–258.
Studie van Prof. Dr. Olle Johansson, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
"Recently, a new category of persons, claiming to suffer from exposure to electromagnetic fields, has been described in the literature. In Sweden, electrohypersensitivity (EHS) is an officially fully recognized functional impairment (i.e., it is not regarded as a disease). Survey studies show that somewhere between 230,000–290,000 Swedish men and women report a variety of symptoms when being in contact with electromagnetic field (EMF) sources. The aim of our studies has been to investigate possible alterations, in the cellular and neuronal systems of these persons' skin. As controls, age- and sex-matched persons, without any subjective or clinical symptoms or dermatological history, served. Immunohistochemistry using antisera to the previously characterized marker substances of interest has been utilized. In summary, it is evident from our preliminary data that various alterations are present in the electrohypersensitive persons' skin. In view of recent epidemiological studies, pointing to a correlation between long-term exposure from power-frequent magnetic fields or microwaves and cancer, our data ought to be taken seriously and further analyzed."
2015 UPDATE van deze studie:
Johansson O, "Electrohypersensitivity: A Functional Impairment Due to an Inaccessible Environment", Rev Environ Health 2015; 30: 311–321.
- Cognitive and neurobiological alterations in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients: results of a case-control study, Psychological Medicine 2008 Mar 26; 1-11 (PubMed)
"Background. Hypersensitivity to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is frequently claimed to be linked to a variety of non-specific somatic and neuropsychological complaints. Whereas provocation studies often failed to demonstrate a causal relationship between EMF exposure and symptom formation, recent studies point to a complex interplay of neurophysiological and cognitive alterations contributing to symptom manifestation in electromagnetic hypersensitive patients (EHS). However, these studies have examined only small sample sizes or have focused on selected aspects. Therefore this study examined in the largest sample of EHS EMF-specific cognitive correlates, discrimination ability and neurobiological parameters in order to get further insight into the pathophysiology of electromagnetic hypersensitivity. Conclusions. These results demonstrate significant cognitive and neurobiological alterations pointing to a higher genuine individual vulnerability of electromagnetic hypersensitive patients."
- Altered cortical excitability in subjectively electrosensitive patients: results of a pilot study, Journal of Psychosomatic Research 2007 Mar;62(3):283-8 (PubMed)
- The Medical Perspective on Environmental Sensitivities (mei 2007)
Margaret E. Sears (M. Eng, Ph.D.), Canadian Human Rights Commission
"Approximately 3% of Canadians have been diagnosed with environmental sensitivities, and many more are somewhat sensitive to traces of chemicals and/or electromagnetic phenomena in the environment. People experience neurological and numerous other symptoms, and avoidance of triggers is an essential step to regaining health. The Canadian Human Rights Commission commissioned this report to summarize scientific information about environmental sensitivities. For those interested in the original scientific and technical literature, an annotated bibliography is available on request. This report addresses issues such as the definition and prevalence of environmental sensitivities; recognition by medical authorities; education and training within the medical community; origins, triggers and symptoms of sensitivities; impact of environmental sensitivities in the workplace; government policies and standards for building codes, air quality and ventilation as they affect individuals with environmental sensitivities; and guidelines for accommodation within the workplace. For people with environmental sensitivities, their health and ability to work rests with the actions of others, including building managers, co-workers and clients. Accommodating people with environmental sensitivities presents an opportunity to improve workplace environmental quality and workers' performance, and may help prevent the onset of sensitivities in others."
- Consultations in primary care for symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields – a survey among general practitioners, BMC Public Health 2006, 6:267Anke Huss and Martin Röösli, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, University of Berne, Switzerland
- Increased concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants in subjects with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity--a pilot study, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, Volume 27, Issue 2 June 2008 , pages 197 - 203Samenvatting:"Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is used for a variety of subjective symptoms related to exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF). The aim of this pilot study was to analyze the concentrations of certain persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in subjects with self-reported EHS. In total, 13 EHS subjects and 21 controls were included, all female. The concentration of several POPs was higher in EHS subjects than in controls. Lower concentrations were found for hexachlorobenzene and two types of chlordanes. The only significantly increased odds ratios (ORs) were found for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) #47 yielding OR=11.7, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.45-94.7 and the chlordane metabolite MC6 with OR=11.2, 95% CI=1.18-106. The results were based on low numbers and must be interpreted with caution. This hypothesis generating study indicates the necessity of a larger investigation on this issue."
- Rapport van de Nederlandse Stichting Elektrohypersensitiviteit: EHS in the Netherlands (2007)"The results of a questionnaire that was completed by 250 electrohypersensitive (EHS) persons in the Netherlands over a 3-year period, who contacted the EHS Foundation on their own initiative. Self declared health problems were recorded along with the sources of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) - if known - that caused the health effects"Samenvatting en volledige studie vindt u Electromagnetic hypersensitivity.
- Electromagnetic hypersensitivity, Powerwatch UK.
- In oktober 2004 hield de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie een workshop over elektrogevoeligheid. Over de belangenvermenging, het lobbywerk en de onwetenschappelijke manier van werken bij de WGO kunt u meer lezen hier. Na de workshop is een samenvattend document geschreven. Prof. Dr. Johansson, die deelnam aan de workshop, heeft toen een 'formal reservation' opgesteld, omdat hij - terecht - niet met de inhoud van het document akkoord ging. De WGO heeft toen echter op ondemocratische manier geweigerd om deze 'formal reservation' toe te voegen aan het document. U kunt Johansson's tekst terug vinden hier.In de tekst komen ook de maatregelen aan bod die in Zweden genomen zijn om elektrogevoeligen de kans te geven op een menswaardig leven.
- Letter to the Editor: Will We All Become Electrosensitive?, Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine, 25: 189–191, 2006
- Sensitivity to Non-Ionising Radiation in Ireland (2005), Irish Doctors Environmental Association (IDEA)
"Over the last more than 20 years, accounts of individual's apparent sensitivity to electromagnetic radiation (EMR) have been published in several countries. Studies in these different jurisdictions have estimated the prevalence of this condition to be between 1 and 5% in the general population. Recent research in Sweden has found that the number of people reporting symptoms that they associated with this sensitivity has been rising rapidly. In Ireland, the number of people who describe themselves as sensitive to radiation from mobile telephone base stations, mobile telephones and other electromagnetic appliances has also been increasing. These individuals report experiencing a range of symptoms when they are exposed to such radiation. These symptoms can vary from mild to severe and some can be extremely debilitating. A possible explanation is that people who are affected in this way have a physiological sensitivity to environmental stressors such as EMR.The Irish Doctors' Environmental Association (IDEA) is a group of doctors and other health professionals who wish to highlight possible links between changes in the environment and health. To this end, IDEA undertook a descriptive study of 16 people in Ireland who appeared to be sensitive to exposure to EMR. The study involved applying a structured questionnaire to a self-selected group of individuals who experienced symptoms that they related to exposure to electromagnetic radiation. The participants were then examined by a doctor and a range of laboratory investigations was conducted on them."Zie ook IDEA Position on Electro-Magnetic Radiation
- Mystery in the skin: Screen dermatitis, the effect of electromagnetic radiation on human skinAn interview with associate professor Olle Johansson at the Experimental Dermatology Unit, Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
Bibliografie van studies uitgevoerd door Prof. Dr. Olle Johansson en collega's
- William Rea et al. (1991), Electromagnetic Field Sensitivity: Case study evaluation, Journal of Bioelectricity, 10(1&2), 241-256
"We conclude that this study gives strong evidence that electromagnetic field sensitivity exists, and can be elicited under environmentally controlled conditions."
- Hoe de Duitse arts von Klitzing te werk gaat bij het testen voor/diagnosticeren van elektrogevoeligheid: klik + artikel 'Elektrosensibilität ist messbar'.
Zie ook www.umweltphysik.com
- Electrosensitivity: FAQs (Dr. David Dowson M.D.)
- Een aantal interessante referenties op p. 11-12 in het volgende document.