Internationaal genomen maatregelen
Internationaal genomen maatregelen
- 21 juli 2014
- 21 juli 2014
Zie ook de webpagina van Environmental Health Trust: International precautionary actions by Governments, Authorities and Schools.
INTERNATIONAL PRECAUTIONARY ACTIONS
by Governments, Authorities and Schools
Governments and health authorities around the world are taking action to minimize citizen’s exposure to wireless radiation.
France: New Legislation and the National Agency for Health, Food and Environmental Safety (ANSES).
- 2013 The French National Assemblypassed an amendment banning WiFi from nursery Schools and strongly discouraging Wi-Fi in their schools until its proven “safe for human consumption.”
- 2011 French Cell Phone Statute: Merchants must display SAR Radiation levels for different phone models, all phones must be sold with a headset, cell phone ads aimed at children younger than 14 are banned and phones made for children under 6 are banned.
- 2013 ANSES Report recommendshands free phones, SAR labeling, and “limiting the population’s exposure to radiofrequencies… especially for children and intensive users, and controlling the overall exposure that results from relay antennas.”
- The French National Library along with other libraries in Paris, and a number of universities have removed all Wi-Fi networks.
- Herouville-Saint-Clairhas removed all Wi-Fi equipment installed in municipal facilities. Priority was given to schools. WiFi is replaced in almost all schools by fiber optic cable.
Belgium: Federal Public Health Regulations on March 2013 due to Health Concerns for Children.
- Phones designed for children under 7 years old are prohibited from sale.
- Total Advertising Ban on cell phones aimed at children younger than 14.
- Mandatory Radiation SAR levels must be available for consumers at point of sale.
- Warning label on phones: “Think about your health – use your mobile phone moderately, make your calls wearing an earpiece and choose a set with a lower SAR value.”
- Recommendations include use of hands-free methods to keep the phone away from the body such as text messaging and not making calls when the signal is weak, such as in an elevator or in a moving vehicle.
- Ghent Municipality: Wireless internet is banned from spaces that cater to children between 0 and three: preschools and daycares to reduce exposure to microwave radiation.
Australia: In 2013 the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency issued Fact Sheet 14: titled How to Reduce exposure from mobile phones and other wireless devices.
- Reduce the risk from WiFi devices by “keeping them at a distance, for example placing the wireless router away from where people spend time”, and “reducing the amount of time you use them”.
- “ARPANSA recommends that parents encourage their children to limit their exposure.”
Finland: The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority issuedrecommendations for children which include: favoring text messages, parents limiting duration and amount of calls,the use of hands free devices, avoiding calls in a low reception area and keeping the phone away from the body.
- “With children, we have reason to be especially careful, because there is not enough research on children’s mobile phone use”, according to STUK research director Sisko Salomaa.
- Preschool through 2nd grade have banned the use of wireless networks.
- A hard wired direct cable connection is required if the teacher has a computer in the class.
- The Israeli Supreme Court ordered the Israeli government to reply on ceasing Wifi installations
- In third and fourth grade class internet is restricted to 3 hours per week.
- The Education Ministryhas instructed all schools to perform radiation tests.
- Israel’s Minister of Health Rabi Litzman stated that he supports a ban on Wi-Fi in schools.
Switzerland: The Governing Council of Thurgau Canton2008 “The Governing Council recommends for schools to forgo the use of wireless networks when the structural makeup of a given school building allows for a wired network."
- The German Federal Ministry for Radiation Protection states,”supplementary precautionary measures such as wired cable alternatives are to be preferred to the WLAN system.
- Bavaria:The State Ministry of Education and Cultural Affairs: “For precautionary reasons the Federal Office for Radiation Protection recommends for schools that if a wireless network is used to place its components in suitable locations and to prefer the use of wired network solutions whenever possible.” In 2007 Parliament recommendation to all schools to not install wireless LAN networks.
- Frankfurt: “In Frankfurt’s schools there will be no wireless networks in the short or mid term. The Local Education Authority did not wish to conduct a “large scale human experiment,” said Michael Damian, spokesperson of the Head of the School Department Jutta Ebeling.
Austria: “The official advice of the Public Health Department of the Salzburg Regionis not to use WLAN and DECT in Schools or Kindergartens.” -Gerd Oberfeld, MD.
- The Austrian Medical Society has issuescell phone safety guidelines stating that cell phones should be used for as short of a time as possible and that children under 16 should not use cell phones at all. The state that wireless LAN leads to high microwave exposure.
United Kingdom: The UK National Health Service has specific Recommendations for children and cell phones as “children are thought to be at higher risk of health implications”.
- “Children should only use mobile phones for essential purposes and keep all calls short. “
- For the public they have “recommendations to help lower any potential long-term risks” which include keeping calls short, keep phone away from the body on standby mode, only use it when the reception is strong and use a phone with an external antenna.
Italy: The Italian Supreme Court ruled a man’s brain tumor was caused by his cell phone use in 2012. The National Institute for Workmen’s Compensation must compensate a worker with head tumor due to cell use.
India: 2012 The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology issued EMF guidelines with new Exposure Limits lowered to 1/10 of the ICNIRP level, SAR labeling on phones.
- Official guidelines for cell phone use include: Headsets, Speakerphones, limiting cell use, increasing distance from devices, and choosing landlines.
- 2013:Supreme Court of India upholds a decision of the High Court of the State of Rajasthan to remove all cell towers from the vicinity of schools, colleges, hospitals and playgrounds because of radiation “hazardous to life.”
- The Ministry of Communications and Information Technology has a webpage entitled "A Journey for EMF” detailing guidelines and current issues with wireless devices and cell towers.
Russia: The Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection has repeatedlywarned about electromagnetic radiation impacts on children and recommended WiFi not be used in schools.
- “Thus, for the first time in the human history, children using mobile telecommunications along with the adult population are included into the health risk group due to the RF EMF exposure.”
- “In children, the amount of so-called stem cells is larger than in adults and the stem cells were shown to be the most sensitive to RF EMF exposure.”
- “It is reasonable to set limits on mobile telecommunications use by children and adolescents, including ban on all types of advertisement of mobile telecommunications for children.”
- Decision of Russian National Committee on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection 2008, “CHILDREN AND MOBILE PHONES: THE HEALTH OF THE FOLLOWING GENERATIONS IS IN DANGER.”
Canada: Health Canada offers “Practical Advice” on reducing exposure to wireless radiation.
- Recommendations: 1. Limit the length of cell phone calls, 2. Replace cell phone calls with text, use “hands-free” devices and 3. Encourage children under the age of 18 to limit their cell phone usage
- “Health Canada reminds cell phone users that they can take practical measures to reduce RF exposure. The department encourages parents to reduce their children’s RF exposure from cell phones since children are typically more sensitive to a variety of environmental agents…There is a lack of scientific information regarding the potential health impacts of cell phones on children.”
|Resolution 1815: In 2011 The Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe issued|
The Potential Dangers of Electromagnetic Fields and Their Effect on the Environment
A call to European governments to “take all reasonable measures” to reduce exposure to electromagnetic fields “particularly the exposure to children and young people who seem to be most at risk from head tumours.”
The Resolution calls for member states to:
- Implement “information campaigns about the risk of biological effects on the environment and human health, especially targeting children and young people of reproductive age. “
- “Reconsider the scientific basis for the present standards on exposure to electromagnetic fields set by the International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection, which have serious limitations, and apply ALARA principles, covering both thermal effects and the athermic or biological effects of electromagnetic emissions or radiation.”
“For children in general, and particularly in schools and classrooms, give preference to wired Internet connections, and strictly regulate the use of mobile phones by schoolchildren on school premises.”
United States: Legislation has been introduced at the state and national level. Some Communities have issued proclamations, resolutions and and started initiatives to inform the public of wireless health issues.
Proposed National Legislation
- 2012 The Cell Phone Right to Know Act H.R. 6358 was introduced receiving strong support from many organizations including the American Academy of Pediatrics. (AAP Letter here.) This legislation called for labels on mobile devices at point of sale, a comprehensive national research program to study whether exposure to wireless devices causes adverse biological effects directed by NIEHS and the EPA and exposure level regulation.
Proposed State Legislation
- 2014 The Maine LD 1013 “The Wireless Information Act” passed the State Senate and House but then failed to pass the second vote. The Bill requires manufacturer’s information on radio-frequency exposure be visible on the outside of the cell phone’s product packaging.
- 2014 Hawaii Senate Bill SB 2571 was introduced calling for a warning label encouraging consumers to follow the enclosed product safety guidelines to reduce exposure to radiation that may be hazardous to their health.
- The San Francisco Cell Phone Right to Know Ordinance was signed in 2011 requiring cell phone retailers to distribute an educational sheet created by the San Francisco Department of Environment that explains radiofrequency emissions from cell phones and how consumers can minimize their exposure. The CTIA sued the city and settled with the City to block implementation of the Ordinance in exchange for a waiver of attorneys’ fees. The City still maintains aCell Phone Information page with significant information on how to reduce exposure.
- Past Proposed Legislation includesSB 932 California,HM 32, New Mexico,HB 1408 Pennsylvania, andSB 679 Oregon.
- 2012, Jackson Hole, Wyoming made a Proclamation of Cell Phone Safety which cites concern over long term health effects as well as the increased risk the radiation poses to children.
- Pembroke Pines, Florida passed Resolution3362 which expressed the City’s “Urgent Concerns” about Wireless Radiation and Health, encourages citizens to read their manuals and presents information on how to reduce exposure by using a headset or speakerphone.
- 2010 Burlingame California City Council voted to include cell phone safetyguidelines in their Healthy Living in Burlingame initiative which include the WHO classification and precautions a consumer can take if concerned.
- 2010, Portland Maine, Mayor Mavodenes, Jr. declared October “Cell Phone Awareness Month”
The European Environment Agency Report“Late Lessons from Early Warnings, Volume II” 2013 Report details the accumulating science on radio frequency radiation, the significant risks of waiting and critical need to take precautionary action to reduce exposures to avoid widespread harm.
European Environment Agency: “All reasonable measures to be taken to reduce exposures to electromagnetic fields, especially radiofrequencies from mobile phones and particularly the exposures to children and young adults. Current exposure limits to be reconsidered.”
Parent Teacher Organizations
2013 Canadian Teacher Federation’s Brief (200,000 elementary/secondary school teachers)
- “CTF is concerned about the lack of definitive research regarding the adverse health effects of Wi-Fi.
- “We propose a prudent approach to the use of Wi-Fi, especially where children are present.”
- “We recommend an education program regarding the relative safety of Wi-Fi exposure and that appropriate resources be developed to educate the public regarding ways to avoid potential exposure risks of Wi-Fi access points and devices.”
- “Pedagogical needs could be met in schools with an approach that limits exposure to Wi-Fi.”
2013 United Teachers of Los Angeles, representing 40,000 teachers and staff
- Resolution passed: “I move that UTLA will abide by current National NEA Policy for Environmentally Safe Schools which states that all employees and stakeholders should be informed when there are changes in their exposure to environmental hazards including electromagnetic radiation and that all stakeholders and the public should be notified of any actual and potential hazards.”
2013 Elementary Teacher’s Federation of Ontario- over 76,000 teachers
- Label the location Of Wi-Fi access points.
- Develop a hazard control program related to wireless microwave radiation through JHSC.
2012 The Ontario English Catholic Teachers Association(45,000 Ontario teachers)
- Recommends a wired infrastructure as WIFI “may present a potential Health and Safety risk or hazard in the workplace…The safety of this technology has not thoroughly been researched and therefore the precautionary principle and prudent avoidance of exposure should be practiced.”
- “Voice has advocated that new Wi-Fi systems should not be installed in schools, that existing systems should be turned off when not required and that schools should consider whether they really need to use Wi-Fi, which was developed to facilitate Internet access on the move rather than to be used as a convenient alternative to cables in dedicated IT facilities.”
- Wi-Fi free zones should be available.
- On/Off routers recommended and record any adverse Wi-Fi health effects.
- Minimal or non-use within elementary schools.
- “The BCTF supports members who are suffering from Electromagnetic Hypersensitivity by ensuring their medical needs are accommodated in the workplace.”
- Proposed Resolutions “the World Health Organization’s classification of radiofrequency/electromagnetic fields emitted by wireless devices as a 2B possible cancer risk to humans; that the BCTF ensures all teachers have the right to work in a safe environment, including the right to work in a Wi-Fi/ wireless-free environment.”
- Recommendation to the Ministry of Education that school boards “begin immediate installation of on/off switches for Wi-Fi routers in schools, thereby reducing microwave radiation exposure and reducing health risks to members, and/or provide safer Ethernet cables or fibre optics”.
2013 The BC Confederation of Parent Advisory Councils (BCCPAC) of 821 Advisory Councils representing over 500,000 parents in British Columbia passed two resolutions.
- Resolution 17 “calls on each Board of Education to have one public school at each education level that is free of Wi-Fi, cordless phones and cell phones. This school will only be equipped with wired computers and wired telephones for personal, educational and administrative purposes.”
- Resolution 18 calls on Boards of Education to “cease to install Wi-Fi and other wireless networks in schools where other networking technology is feasible.” passed with a clear majority.
2008 Lucerne Elementary Secondary Arrow Lakes District SD 10 New Denver BC, Canada
- Opts for “No WIFI
|“The National Education Association believes that all educational facilities must have healthy indoor|
air quality, be smoke-free, be safe from environmental and chemical hazards, and be safe from hazardous
electromagnetic fields.” Section C-19 of the NEA 2013-2014 Resolutions
Examples of Schools Implementing Best Practices
2014: UPPER Sturt Primary School, Australia opts for “No WIFI”
2014: The St. Augustine Schoolin Italy turned off Wifi and goes back to Wires.
2013: Winlaw Elementary School, B.C. Canada turned off WiFi.
2013: Te Horo Primary School New Zealand Replaced WIFI with cable-based internet.
2013: Kootenay Lakes DistrictSchool Board BC (One school without Wi-Fi)
2013: Blaise-Cendrars High School, Switzerland. Teachers vote to remove WiFi.
2012: Kivioja primary school in Ylivieska Finland bans phones and minimizes Wireless.
2011: City of Lakes Waldorf School, Minneapolis, Minnesota USA
2011: Aurora School in Ontario removed Wifi and replaced with hardwired.
2011: North Cariboo Christian School in Quesnel, B.C., removed Wi-fi .
2011: Pretty River Academy in Ontario no WiFi.
2011: Wayside Academy, Peterborough, Ontario no Wi Fi.
2010: Surrey,BC Roots and Wings Montessoriremoved Wi-Fi.
2010: Ontario St. Vincent Euphrasia elementary school: Parents voted to turn off Wi-Fi.
2009: HEROUVILLE-SAINT-CLAIR wi-fi networks removed
DOCTORS AND SCIENTISTS APPEALS
FOR STRICTER WIRELESS TECHNOLOGY REGULATION
Vienna Resolution 1998
Salzburg Resolution 2000
Stewart Report, UK 2000
Catania Resolution 2002
Freiburger Appeal 2002
Bamberger Appeal 2004
Maintaler Appeal 2004
Coburger Appeal 2005
Haibacher Appeal 2005
Hofer Appeal 2005
Parish Kirchner Appeal 2005
Saarlander Appeal 2005
Stockacher Appeal 2005
Benevento Resolution 2006
Allgäuer Appeal 2006WiMax Appeal 2006
Brussels Appeal 2007
Venice Resolution 2008
EMF Resolution 2009
Dutch Appeal 2009